Sucralose Toxicity




The information on this web site is provided for educational purposes only. Please see Disclaimer, Terms of Use, and Privacy Policy.

"The doctor of the future will give no medicine, but will interest his patients in the care of the human frame, in diet and in the cause and prevention of disease."
- Thomas Edison

There is new research showing that a sugar called xylitol (pronounced zy-li-tol) can significantly improve oral health, improve calcium absorption, increase bone density and remineralize tooth enamel. Xylitol also helps prevent or eliminate gum disease, cavities, tooth loss, asthma, inner ear infections, chronic throat and sinus conditions, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. Xylitol has only 2.4 calories per gram, compared to 4 calories per gram for sucrose sugar. Xylitol is digested slowly, making it easier on your pancreas and useful for diabetics. You can purchase xylitol in five pound bags and use it in cooking and for all purposes you would ordinarily use sugar. Due to the health benefits from consuming xylitol, we suggest that it is a good substitute for ordinary sugar.

The herb stevia is the best no-calorie sweetener. Available in health food stores.

Sugar feeds cancer.


Mercola: sucralose (Splenda) toxicity 12.3.00
Dr. Joseph M. Mercola, DO  847-985-1777

"However, I have had a number of patients in our Wellness Center who have had some severe migraines and even seizures from consuming this product."

The Potential Dangers of Sucralose

There's a new artificial sweetener on the block and it is already in a wide range of products, some even sold in health food stores and manufactured by nutritionally-oriented companies. 

  • But is it proven safe? 

  • Does it provide any benefit  to the public?

  • Does it help with weight loss?

  • Are there any long term human studies?

  • Has it been shown  to be safe for the environment?

The answer to all of these questions is unfortunately a resounding NO.

The artificial sweetener sucralose, which is sold under the name SplendaT, is one of the up-and-coming "next generation" of high-intensity sugar substitutes. It is non-caloric and about 600 times sweeter than sucrose (white table sugar), although it can vary from 320 to 1,000 times sweeter, depending on the food application. The white crystalline powder tastes like a lot like sugar, but is more intense in its sweetness.

How it is Manufactured

Sucralose is produced by chlorinating sugar (sucrose). This involves chemically changing the structure of the sugar molecules by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups.


Sucralose was discovered in 1976 by researchers  working under the auspices of Tate & Lyle Ltd., a large British sugar refiner. In 1980,  Tate & Lyle arranged with Johnson & Johnson, the world's largest health care company, to develop  sucralose. Johnson & Johnson formed McNeil Speciality Products Company in 1980 to commercialize sucralose.

In 1991, Canada became the first nation to approve the use of sucralose.

In April, 1998 the US Food and Drug Administration  granted approval for sucralose to be used in a variety of food products (CLICK HERE for complete  list of products using sucralose). Diet RC cola was the first US product with sucralose, introduced in May 1998.

Sucralose is not yet approved for use in most European countries, where it is still under review.

Safety Concerns

Few human studies of safety have been published on sucralose. One small study of diabetic patients using the sweetener showed a statistically significant increase in glycosylated hemoglobin (Hba1C), which is a marker of long-term blood glucose levels and is used to assess glycemic control in diabetic patients. According to the FDA, "increases in glycosolation in hemoglobin imply lessening of control of diabetes."

Research in animals has shown that sucralose can cause many problems in rats, mice, and rabbits, such as:

  • Shrunken thymus glands (up to 40% shrinkage)

  • Enlarged liver and kidneys.

  • Atrophy of lymph follicles in the spleen and thymus

  • Increased cecal weight

  • Reduced growth rate

  • Decreased red blood cell count

  • Hyperplasia of the pelvis

  • Extension of the pregnancy period

  • Aborted pregnancy

  • Decreased fetal body weights and placental weights

  • Diarrhea

According to one source (Sucralose Toxicity Information Center), concerning the significant reduction in size of the thymus gland, "the manufacturer claimed that the sucralose was unpleasant for the rodents to eat in large doses and that starvation caused the shrunken thymus glands.

[Toxicologist Judith] Bellin reviewed studies on rats starved under experimental conditions, and concluded that their growth rate could be reduced by as much as a third without the thymus losing a significant amount of weight (less than 7 percent). The changes were much more marked in rats fed on sucralose. While the animals' growth rate was reduced by between 7 and 20 percent, their thymuses shrank by as much as 40 percent. (New Scientist 23 Nov 1991, pg 13)"

A compound chemically related to sucrose, 6-chloro-deoxyglucose, is known to have anti-fertility and neurotoxic effects, although animal studies of sucralose have not shown these effects.

According to the FDA's "Final Rule" report, "Sucralose was weakly mutagenic in a mouse lymphoma mutation assay." The FDA also reported many other tests as having "inconclusive" results.

Just how few studies currently exist on sucralose is an issue. Endurance News provides the following table illustrating this fact:

Sweetener           # of Studies*
Saccharin            2374
Aspartame            598
Cyclamates           459
Acesulfame-K        28
Sucralose               19
       *Number of studies determined by MEDLINE search.
[Murray: This disproves the aspartame public relations ploy that, "Aspartame is the most intensively studied food additive in history."]

In terms of safety, it is not just the original substance (sucralose) that one needs to worry about. As the FDA notes, "Because sucralose may hydrolyze in some food products...the resulting hydrolysis products may also be ingested by the consumer."

Is There Any Long-Term Human Research?

None. According to the Medical Letter on Drugs & Therapeutics, "Its long-term safety is unknown." According to the Sucralose Toxicity Information Center, the "Manufacturer's '100's of studies' (some of which show hazards) were clearly inadequate and do not demonstrate safety in long-term use."

Is Sucralose Absorbed or Metabolized?

Despite the manufacturer's claims to the contrary, sucralose is significantly absorbed and metabolized by the body. According to the FDA's "Final Rule" report, 11% to 27% of sucralose is absorbed in humans, and the rest is excreted unchanged in feces. According to the Japanese Food Sanitation Council, as much as 40% of ingested sucralose is absorbed.

Plasma sucralose has been reported to have a half-life of anywhere from 2 to 5 hours in most studies, although the half-life in rabbits was found to be much longer at about 36 hours.

About 20% to 30% of absorbed sucralose is metabolized. Both the metabolites and unchanged absorbed sucralose are excreted in urine. The absorbed sucralose has been found to concentrate in the liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. According to The Sucralose Toxicity Information Center, sucralose is broken down "into small amounts of 1,6-dichlorofructose, a chemical which has not been adequately tested in humans."

Chlorinated Pesticides

According to Consumers Research Magazine "Some concern was raised about sucralose being a chlorinated molecule. Some chlorinated molecules serve as the basis for pesticides such as D.D.T., and accumulate in body fat. However, Johnson & Johnson emphasized that sucralose passes through the body unabsorbed."

Of course, this assertion about not being absorbed is complete nonsense.

As shown above, a substantial amount of sucralose is absorbed, so the argument is not valid.

According to the HAD, "The manufacturer claims that the chlorine added to sucralose is similar to the chlorine atom in the salt (NaCl) molecule. That is not the case. Sucralose may be more like ingesting tiny amounts of chlorinated pesticides, but we will never know without long-term, independent human research."


The FDA acknowledges that sucralose "is produced at an approximate purity of 98%." While that may sound pretty pure, just what is in that other 2%? It turns out that the final sucralose product contains small amounts of potentially dangerous substances such as:

  • Heavy Metals (e.g., Lead)

  • Arsenic

  • Triphenilphosphine Oxide

  • Methanol

  • Chlorinated Disaccharides

  • Chlorinated Monosaccharide

Although manufacturing guidelines do specify limits on these substances there is no guarantee that such limits will always be met.

Environmental Concerns

Despite the fact that a portion of sucralose is metabolized into some chemicals of questionable safety, a majority of the consumed sucralose is excreted unchanged in the feces and urine. While that may be good for the person using the product, it may not be so great for the environment.

Although sucralose is being flushed down toilets wherever sucralose is approved for sale, what happens to it next is simply a matter for speculation. I know of no studies showing what happens to the chemical when the raw sewage is treated and then released back into the environment.

  • Does it remain stable or react with other substances to form new compounds?

  • Is the sucralose or any resulting chemicals safe for the environment?

  • How will this chemical affect aquatic life such as fish, as well as other animals?

  • Will sucralose begin to appear in our water supplies, just as some drugs are beginning to be found?

Of course, we will likely not know the answers to these questions for many years, if at all. One of the main reasons for this is that the FDA did not require an Environmental Impact Statement for sucralose, because in their words, "the action will not have a significant impact on the human environment."

One study did find that sucralose is metabolized by micro-organisms in both the water and soil (Labare 94). However, the ecological impact of this new chemical being introduced into the environment is unknown.

Is There a Benefit for Consumers?

According to Consumers' Research Magazine, sucralose provides some benefits for the corporations making and using it, but not for consumers. They state:

"But are such foods truly beneficial and desirable? Diabetics, weight watchers, and the general public might make better food choices by selecting basic, rather than highly processed foods; for example, apples, rather than turnovers; or plain, rather than sweetened, dairy foods."

They note that non-caloric artificial sweeteners are not replacing, but rather supplementing conventional sweeteners. They note that as of 1990 Americans were consuming an average of 20 pounds (sugar sweetness equivalency) of artificial sweeteners, and as consumption of sugar-substitutes has risen so too has consumption of sugar.

Does Sucralose Help with Weight Loss?

According to Consumers' Research Magazine "There is no clear-cut evidence that sugar substitutes are useful in weight reduction. On the contrary, there is some evidence that these substances may stimulate appetite."

Where is Sucralose Found?

In the United States, the FDA has granted approval for the use of sucralose in 15 food and beverage categories: (For a complete list of products containing sucralose CLICK HERE)

  • Baked goods and baking mixes

  • Chewing gum

  • Confections and frostings

  • Fats and oils (salad dressings)

  • Fruit and water ices

  • Jams and jellies

  • Processed fruits and fruit juices

  • Sweet sauces, toppings and syrups

  • Beverages and beverage bases

  • Coffee and tea

  • Dairy product analogs

  • Frozen dairy desserts and mixes

  • Gelatins, puddings and fillings

  • Milk products

  • Sugar substitutes

For a complete list of products containing sucralose CLICK HERE

Comparison to Other Sweeteners

Its promoters cite several benefits over other sweeteners, such as:

  • Unlike saccharin, sucralose leaves no bitter aftertaste.

  • Unlike other artificial sweeteners, it remains stable at high temperatures.

  • Unlike sugar, it does not raise blood glucose levels

As a comparison to sucralose's 600-fold sweetness increase over sugar, consider the other artificial sweeteners on the market:

Saccharin (Sweet-and-Low) -            300 to 500 times sweeter
Aspartame (NutraSweet and Equal) - 150 to 200 times sweeter
Acesulfame K (Sunette) -                   200 times sweeter.

Big Business

A 1998 report in Chemical Week states that the high-intensity sweetener market is about $1.5-billion/year. About 70%-80% of that market is made up of soft drink sweeteners, of which aspartame has a near monopoly. They note that although sucralose is 50% sweeter than aspartame, it will be difficult to persuade many soft drink producers to give up NutraSweet (aspartame) since it is widely accepted by consumers.

Is Anyone Monitoring Post-Approval Reactions?

Apparently not. With no established system for monitoring and tracking post-approval adverse effects, how can it ever be established whether large-scale and long-term consumption of sucralose is safe?

Technical Information

Sucralose is made from sucrose by substituting three chlorine atoms for three hydroxyl groups to yield


This is accomplished in a five-step process.

Prolonged storage, particularly at high temperatures and low pH, causes the sucralose to break down into 4-chloro-4-deoxy-galactose (4CG) and 1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxyfructose (1,6 DCF),

The Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number (CAS Reg. No.) for sucralose is 56038-13-2.

Should Sucralose be Avoided?

The Holistic Medicine Web Page cites the following reasons to avoid sucralose:

  • Pre-approval tests indicated potential toxicity of sucralose.

  • There are no *independent* controlled human studies on sucralose (similar to 15 years ago for aspartame).

  • There are no long-term (12-24 months) human studies of sucralose's effects.

  • There is no monitoring of health effects.

It took government agencies decades to agree that there were countless thousands of deaths from tobacco. Why? Simply because there had been no monitoring or epidemiological studies. Without such monitoring and studies, huge effects can easily go unnoticed.

Do Products with Sucralose Carry Any Warning Labels Or Information Statements?

No. The regulatory agencies and scientific review bodies that have endorsed the safety of sucralose have not required any warning information to be placed on the labels of products sweetened with sucralose.


The Sucralose Toxicity Information Center concludes that:

While it is unlikely that sucralose is as toxic as the poisoning people are experiencing from Monsanto's aspartame, it is clear from the hazards seen in pre-approval research and from its chemical structure that years or decades of use may contribute to serious chronic immunological or neurological disorders.

The Consumer's Research magazine concludes that:

"As Americans continue to choose ever-increasing amounts of such foods and beverages, sweeteners may soar to higher consumption levels. The long-range health effects from such escalation need careful evaluation. Do additional approved sweetening agents truly contribute to good health? Do they really meet special dietary needs? Or, do they merely further encourage poor dietary choices?

Dr. Mercola's Comment: Don't let these large companies fool you. There is no magic alternative when it comes to sweeteners. You simply can not have your cake and eat it to when it comes to this area. It is far to early to tell as not enough people have consumed this product to observe large numbers of adverse effects.

However, I have had a number of patients in our Wellness Center who have had some severe migraines and even seizures from consuming this product.

My advice?

AVOID sucralose.

I am fond of telling people that if something tastes sweet you probably should spit it out as it is not likely to be too good for you. This of course, is a humorous exaggerating, but for most people who struggle with chronic illness, it is likely to be a helpful guide.

PLEASE note this article is being written in 2000. This is one of the first comprehensive clear investigative reports and warnings on sucralose on the Internet.

Food and Drug Administration, "Final Rule " for Sucralose, 21 CFR Part 172, Docket No. 87F-0086.

Lord GH, Newberne PM., Renal mineralization--a ubiquitous lesion in chronic rat studies.
Food Chem Toxicol 1990 Jun;28:449-55.

Labare MP, Alexander M., Microbial cometabolism of sucralose, a chlorinated disaccharide, in environmental samples. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1994 Oct;42:173-8.

Hunter BT., Sucralose, Consumers' Research Magazine, Oct 1990, Vol. 73 Issue 10, p8, 2p.

Maudlin RK. FDA approves sucralose for expanded use. Modern Medicine, Oct 1999, Vol. 67 Issue 10, p57, 1/9p

Sucralose--a new artificial sweetener. Medical Letter on Drugs & Therapeutics,
07/03/98, Vol. 40, Issue 1030, p67, 2p.

Q&A: Is newly FDA approved sweetener sucralose good for you? Executive Health's Good Health Report, Nov 1998, Vol. 35 Issue 2, p6, 1p, 1c.

Gain B., FDA approves J&J Sweetener, Chemical Week, 04/15/98, Vol. 160 Issue 14, p27, 1/4p.

Sucralose Toxicity Information Center

Splenda Product Web Site

Official Tate & Lyle Sucralose Web Site

Copyright 1997-2000 by Joseph M. Mercola, DO. All rights reserved. This content may be copied in full, with copyright; contact; creation; and information intact, without specific permission, when used only in a not-for-profit format. If any other use is desired, permission in writing from Dr. Mercola is required.

Disclaimer - Newsletters are based upon the opinions of Dr. Mercola. They are not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and they are not intended as medical advice. They are intended as a sharing of knowledge and information from the research and experience of Dr. Mercola and his community. Dr. Mercola encourages you to make your own health care decisions based upon your research and in partnership with a qualified health care professional.

To sign up for the FULL TEXT of this  newsletter you can send a blank e-mail to: The full newsletter is 20-40  pages long and can be up to 250KB.
First and foremost I am an osteopathic medical doctor. If you have not heard of osteopathic physicians before please click here to find out more about D.O.s I am board certified in family medicine and served as the chairman of the family medicine department at St. Alexius Medical Center for five years.

I am trained in both traditional and natural medicine and have been practicing natural medicine actively since 1990. I write a monthly column for a natural alternative medical journal (The Townsend Letter) and have been interviewed on national and local news, including: ABC's World News Tonight with Peter Jennings  CNN Practice Profile

One of the privileges as a fully licensed physician is that I can prescribe medications.

A number of prescription medications are beneficial tools which can help to provide relief from some acute illnesses. Occasionally I prescribe them for these purposes.

However I believe that most medications provide only temporary relief at best. I am dedicated to finding long term solutions for my patients who suffer from chronic illnesses.

University of Illinois 1972-1976
Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine 1978-1982
Chicago Osteopathic Hospital 1982-1985
Family Practice Residency. Chief resident 1984- 1985
Board Certified
American College Osteopathic General Practitioners July 1985
State of Illinois  Licensed Physician and Surgeon
Professional Organizations:
American College for Advancement in Medicine 
Association of American Physicians and Surgeons
Price-Pottinger Nutrition Foundation
American Academy of Neural Therapy (
St. Alexius Medical Center, Hoffman Estates, IL
Chairman, Department of Family Practice 1988-1993


I have been an active runner since 1968 and completed the Chicago Marathon in 1990 in just over three hours. I actively participated with the University of Chicago Track Club while in medical school and even won a few local races. I have been a personal computer hobbyist since 1985.



 Home Contents Library


1/2-Inch Extra Thick High Density Anti-Tear Exercise Yoga Mat with Carrying Strap

Overview: With double sided non-slip surfaces, BalanceFrom All-Purpose Premium exercise yoga mat comes with an excellent slip resistant advantage to prevent injuries. Exceptional resilience allows you to keep your balance during any exercise style. Moisture resistant technology makes the mat to be easily washed with soap and water. Easy strapping and light weight feature are added to this mat for easy transport and storage. BalanceFrom All-Purpose Premium exercise yoga mat is manufactured and sold exclusively by BalanceFrom Amazon store.

Dimensions: 71" long 24" wide ensures comfort for people of all shapes and sizes. With high density foam material, the 1/2'' thick premium mat comfortably cushions spine, hips, knees and elbows on hard floors.

Warranty: All genuine BalanceFrom products come with a 2-year warranty and 100% BalanceFrom Satisfaction Guarantee to make your purchase worry free. Simply contact us or your vendor if you have any questions. Customer satisfaction is our highest priority.

- 1/2-inch extra thick
- Excellent non-slip traction and cushion
- A free carrying strap is included
- Light weight and portable
- 2-year warranty
- Various colors available


Eye Mask Alaska Bear - Pure silk sleep mask & blindfold, black eye mask

Alaska Bear® Silk Sleeping mask not only feels smooth against your skin but is also hypoallergenic, great for those with sensitive skin. Mulberry silk is the fabric of the emperors, it is the most elegant of all the silks with a luminous sheen and a smooth touch. Buy for yourself as a gift or consider these an investment in your travel accessories. Everyone will love the beauty and comfort of this silk.

Why using a sleep mask? The hormone Melatonin regulates the day-night cycle of the human body and controls the recovery phases during sleep. For the production of this hormone, the human body requires sufficient darkness. Lightness prevents the production of Melatonin. Even a little portion of light during your sleep, for example caused by a digital clock, is a disturbance. Sleep masks however provide complete darkness for your sleep.

Sleep masks - what for?
- if you want to sleep while travelling, e.g. on airplanes or in trains;
- if your bedroom cannot completely be shaded by black-out curtains and you want to sleep in;
- if you cannot fall asleep because your partner wants to read or watch TV;
- if you are looking for perfect relaxation during yoga, wellness or meditation.


In 1904 there was very little cancer. Now there is an abundance of cancer. What has changed? Can this be reversed? If you have cancer or do not want to get cancer the information you and your family need is on this web site.


Note: there are two ways to navigate this site. You can follow the pages in their logical sequence, or you can access every page from "Contents".


For your assistance, there are Google search boxes on each page that will allow you to search this web site or the entire Internet for more information.


Alkalize For Health Site Search 

Custom Search

Search the Internet with Google



Copyright © 2000 - 2018 AlkalizeForHealth
All rights reserved.

Home               Contents               Library